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GRAS REFERENCE ? The GRAS publication the conditions of intended use as flavor this ingredient appears in - these are searchable, so click Find and enter the FEMA number to search within the publication.

Updated use levels and food categories collected as part of the FDA's SLR project are available from the FEMA office for this flavor ingredient upon request.

CAS ? The CAS number is an unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstract Services.


FLAVOR PROFILE ? The Flavor Profile is the general type of flavor that the ingredient contributes.

Acid, Fruit, Pungent, Sour, Vinegar

JECFA SUMMARY ? Open the link to the JECFA Summary and use the JECFA Number to search for the Evaluation of that flavor ingredient.

Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants prepared by the forty-ninth meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). WHO Food Additives Series No. 40, 1998.



SLR ? Scientific Literature Reviews were sponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration and are available from the National Technology Information Service. They are searchable by their publication number, e.g., PB291108.

CFR ? CFR stands for the US Government Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Find the regulation here and search for the citation provided.


Did You Know?

FEMA's internationally respected scientific body has over 50 years of GRAS experience.

Fact #6